Python GUI编程入门(31)-Treeview控件


Treeview是Tkinter8.5新引入的控件,可以用于实现较为复杂的GUI界面。本文使用一个FileBrowser实例来说明它的用法。

Python GUI编程入门(31)-Treeview控件

构建主窗口和退出菜单的代码和前一篇文章几乎相同:

root = Tk()
root.title('Tkinter Treeview and PanedWindow Demo V1.0')
root.grid_rowconfigure(0, weight=1)
root.grid_columnconfigure(0, weight=1)

screen_w = root.winfo_screenwidth()
screen_h = root.winfo_screenheight()
root.maxsize(width=screen_w, height=screen_h)
rw = int(screen_w / 2)
rh = int(screen_h / 2)
root.geometry('{}x{}+{:g}+{:g}'.format(rw, rh, rw / 2, rh / 2))

top_menu = Menu(root)
root.config(menu=top_menu)

file_menu = Menu(top_menu, tearoff=False)
top_menu.add_cascade(label='File', menu=file_menu)
file_menu.add_command(label="Exit", command=root.quit)

构建一个水平方向的PanedWindow控件,grid布局时sticky属性设置为四面填充。

paned_window = PanedWindow(root, orient=HORIZONTAL)paned_window.grid(row=0, column=0, sticky='eswn')

构建管理左侧控件的Frame对象:

tree_area = Frame(paned_window)
tree_area.grid_rowconfigure(0, weight=1)
tree_area.grid_columnconfigure(0, weight=1)
paned_window.add(tree_area)

准备Treeview图标文件:

cur_path = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__file__))
pc_image = PhotoImage(file=cur_path + '\\images\\pc.png')
drive_image = PhotoImage(file=cur_path + '\\images\\drive.png')
folder_image = PhotoImage(file=cur_path + '\\images\\folder.png')
file_image = PhotoImage(file=cur_path + '\\images\\file.png')

构建Treeview控件。将show属性指定为'tree'可以消除顶部的标题行。

tree_view = Treeview(tree_area, show='tree', selectmode='browse')
tree_view.grid(row=0, column=0, sticky='nsew')

添加水平和垂直滚动条:

scroll_ty = Scrollbar(tree_area, orient=VERTICAL, command=tree_view.yview)
scroll_ty.grid(row=0, column=1, sticky=N+S)
tree_view['yscrollcommand']=scroll_ty.set

scroll_tx = Scrollbar(tree_area, orient=HORIZONTAL, command=tree_view.xview)
scroll_tx.grid(row=1, column=0, sticky=E+W)
tree_view['xscrollcommand']=scroll_tx.set

增加根节点及驱动器节点:

pc_node= tree_view.insert('', 'end',
text=os.environ.get('COMPUTERNAME'),
image=pc_image,
open=False)
for c in string.ascii_uppercase:
disk = c + ':'
if os.path.isdir(disk):
drive_node = tree_view.insert(pc_node, 'end', text=disk, image=drive_image)

给定节点,获得节点路径的函数:

def node_path(node):
path = ''
parent = node
while parent:
node_text = tree_view.item(parent, 'text')
if len(path) > 0:
path = os.path.join(node_text, path)
else:
path = node_text
parent = tree_view.parent(parent)
return path

由于磁盘目录的结构一般都会非常复杂,因此本示例采用以下策略:

  1. 展开节点时才会读入下级节点目录结构
  2. 关闭节点时删除下级节点的目录结构
def open_node(event):
focus = tree_view.focus()
for node in tree_view.get_children(focus):
insert_child_items(node)

tree_view.bind('<<TreeviewOpen>>', open_node)

def close_node(event):
focus = tree_view.focus()
for node in tree_view.get_children(focus):
children = tree_view.get_children(node)
for c in children:
tree_view.delete(c)

insert_child_items的实现如下:

def insert_child_items(parent_node):
path = node_path(parent_node)
if os.path.isdir(path):
try:
dir_items = os.scandir(path)
for item in dir_items:
if item.is_dir() and ('.$'.find(item.name[0])<0):
tree_view.insert(parent_node, 'end', text=item.name, image=folder_image)
except Exception as e:
print(e)

增加下级节点的子节点操作以目录为操作对象。这个操作还会排除系统文件和隐藏文件。异常处理的对象是没有访问权限等情况。

构建右侧显示区域:

detail_area = Frame(paned_window)
detail_area.grid_rowconfigure(0, weight=1)
detail_area.grid_columnconfigure(0, weight=1)
paned_window.add(detail_area)

构建列表形式的Treeview:

list_view = Treeview(detail_area)
list_view['columns'] = ('#1', '#2', "#3", '#4')
list_view.column("#0", width=150, minwidth=150, stretch=YES)
list_view.column("#1", width=150, minwidth=150, stretch=YES)
list_view.column("#2", width=100, minwidth=100, stretch=YES)
list_view.column("#3", width=100, minwidth=100, stretch=NO)
list_view.column("#4", width=100, minwidth=50, stretch=YES)
list_view.heading("#0", text="Name", anchor=W)
list_view.heading("#1", text="Date modified", anchor=W)
list_view.heading("#2", text="Type", anchor=W)
list_view.heading("#3", text="Size", anchor=W)
list_view.grid(row=0, column=0, sticky='nsew')

构建Scrollbar和Sizegrip控件:

scroll_fy = Scrollbar(detail_area, orient=VERTICAL, command=list_view.yview)
scroll_fy.grid(row=0, column=1, sticky=N+S)
list_view['yscrollcommand']=scroll_fy.set

scroll_fx = Scrollbar(detail_area, orient=HORIZONTAL, command=list_view.xview)
scroll_fx.grid(row=1, column=0, sticky=E+W)
list_view['xscrollcommand']=scroll_fx.set

Sizegrip(detail_area).grid(row=1, column=1)

当左侧Treeview的被选节点发生变化时,获取对应目录中的文件并表示在右侧列表形式的Treeview中。

def select_node(event):
children = list_view.get_children('')
for c in children:
list_view.delete(c)
focus = tree_view.focus()
path = node_path(focus)
if os.path.isdir(path):
try:
dir_items = os.scandir(path)
iid = 0
for item in dir_items:
if item.is_file() and ('.$'.find(item.name[0]) < 0):
stat_info = os.stat(item.path)
m_time = time.strftime("%Y/%m/%d %H:%M", time.localtime(stat_info.st_mtime))
type = ' File'
dot_pos = item.name.rfind('.')
if dot_pos > 0:
type = item.name[dot_pos+1:].upper() + type
list_view.insert('', 'end', str(iid), text=item.name, values=(m_time, type, stat_info.st_size))
iid += 1
except Exception as e:
print(e)

软件的演示视频如下:

完整代码可以从以下地址下载:

https://github.com/xueweiguo/TkinterPrimer/blob/master/Sample/31%20FileBrowser.py


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